Men started to exploit the territory of Kazakhstan million years ago.

At the territory of Kazakhstan in the Tamgaly tract (Almaty area) was found one of the most ancient site of the man, which was included in the list of UNESCO the World Cultural Heritage.

During the epoch of the Bronze Age, 4000 years ago, the territory of Kazakhstan was inhabited by the tribes that were engaged in farming and cattle-breeding, were excellent warriors, who mastered chariot. Back in those days began the exploration of copper deposits, which are still used, these are Zhezkazganskiy and Sayakskiy copper pits.

In the VI -III centuries B.C.E., in Zhetysu, in the territory of current South-eastern Kazakhstan, the first state of “sakas” appeared (Greeks called them «Scythians»).

Saka kings simultaneously played the role of hierophants. Sakas had their own written language, mythology and outstanding world-class art, which is known in scientific literature as “the art of animal style”. Masterpieces made back in those days of gold and bronze still enrich worlds museum exhibitions. “The Golden Man” is the most famous of them.

In the second half of VI century in the written sources term “turki” is set. Western Turkic, Turgesh, Karluk khaganates, Oghuz states, Karakhanides, Kimek and Kypchak.

Through the territory of Kazakhstan ran the Great Silk Way – a system of caravan roads, leading from China to the Middle East and Europe countries. Not only trade goods have been spread along the Great Silk Way, but also the cultural traditions of the East and West, religious beliefs, various kinds of arts: painting, architecture and music.Kazakh khanate was formed in the middle of the XV century. The expansion of dominion, strengthening of the statehood, active foreign policy were typical for the first khans, then they were changed by the internecine struggle gain. With the beginning of XYIII century raids of Jungars on Kazakh lands became more frequent. In difficult economic and politic situation arose the question of joining Russia, which lasted about 150 years.

After the revolution of 1917, Soviet power was established in Kazakhstan.

The History of Modern Kazakhstan


  • Kazakh SSR transformed into the Republic of Kazakhstan, state independence of the republic was proclaimed.
  • Semipalatinsk nuclear test site was closed.


  • Kazakhstan enters UN, OSCE and ECO.
  • Kazakhstan acceded to the Treaty on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons as nuclear-free country.


  • First Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan adopted.
  • National currency introduced - tenge.


  • Adopted strategy “Kazakhstan – 2030. Prosperity, security and improvement of welfare of all Kazakhs”.


  • National Fund of the Republic of Kazakhstan was established.


  • In order to improve asset management of the largest public corporations, State holding “Samruk” was created.
  • Created Sustained Development Fund “Kazyna” to increase investment and innovation activity in non-oil economic sector of Kazakhstan.


  • A decision made on transfer of the base material sector revenues (including revenues from oil) to the National Fund, therefore the state budget is formed without “oil money”.


  • Adopted plan to stabilize economy and financial system of the country.
  • The main operator of stability plan implementation is newly created Fund “Samruk-Kazyna”.


  • Government program on forced industrial-innovative development for 2010-2014 was adopted.
  • Customs union with Russia and Belarus created.
  • Kazakhstan’s OSCE chairmanship.


  • Сustoms control is abolished at the borders of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan within the framework of the Customs Union.


  • Astana was declared as the venue for the "EXPO - 2017", where the theme of the exhibition is "Energy of the Future."
  • The Common Economic Space was created (Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan).


  • Signing of the agreement on the creation of the Eurasian Economic Union (Kazakhstan, Russia and Belarus), as well as on the accession of the Republic of Armenia and the Kyrgyz Republic to it, which will enter into force on January 1, 2015.


  • Entry into force of the Eurasian Economic Union (Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan).
  • Kazakhstan joined the World Trade Organization (WTO)


  • 25th anniversary of independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan
  • The Republic of Kazakhstan is elected a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for 2017-2018
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